As the concert business rebounded in 2011, touring remained the biggest source of income for the top earners in the U.S. music business. Billboard's sixth annual Money Makers ranking includes veteran road warriors U2, Kenny Chesney and Bon Jovi, as well as other artists emerging in recent years as A-list arena headliners, from Taylor Swift to Lady Gaga. But not all of the 40 artists on the Money Makers list relied heavily, if at all, on touring income.
Thanks to the breathtaking sales of sophomore album "21," Adele made a top 10 showing despite vocal cord problems limiting her ability to perform publicly before she was forced to cancel 10 sold-out U.S. dates in the fall. Sales of the Beatles' classic catalog-powered by impressive digital album sales at iTunes-enabled the Fab Four to make their Money Makers debut. And who says kids don't buy music these days? Justin Bieber enjoyed such robust album and digital track sales that even his absence from the U.S. touring market didn't keep him from making the cut.
Country artists had another banner year, occupying 11 of the 40 slots on the list, with Swift surpassing all with U.S. earnings of $35.7 million, 17% more than the take-home pay of last year's top-earner, Lady Gaga. Conspicuously absent are dance artists, despite the genre's recent commercial resurgence. That's due, in part, to the fact that even the most prominent dance acts can't match the recorded-music sales of mainstream pop, rock and country artists. Moreover, touring itineraries of most star DJs not named Tiësto include multiple club dates, and venue capacities are simply too small to generate the financial returns of an arena tour.
How The Money Makers List Was Formulated: Billboard editors used proprietary data from the Boxscore archives for U.S. concert grosses. We used Nielsen SoundScan for sales of physical and digital albums, digital tracks and ringtone sales. Data from Nielsen BDS provided information on terrestrial radio airplay, tethered music downloads, on-demand music streams and noninteractive streaming at Myspace, Cricket Wireless (Muve), Rhapsody, Yahoo, Spotify, Slacker, Rdio, MediaNet (MOG) and Guvera. Also included in our calculations were Vevo video plays, Warner Music official video plays on YouTube (Warner clips aren't available on Vevo) and video plays on request service Akoo.
We then applied corresponding mechanical rates and estimates to each of these categories. In calculating an artist's share of revenue from recorded-music sales, we assumed a royalty rate of 20%, minus producer fees. Artists received 100% credit for the sale of a title or concert Boxscore if credited as the lead artist, and 50% credit if sharing equal billing with another act. We credited each artist with 34% of gross tour receipts; i.e., what's typically left after the promoter's fee, the artist manager's fee and other costs are subtracted.
CD mechanical royalties for artist/songwriters were calculated by assuming standard royalty rates. For digital album and track downloads, we used current statutory rates, assuming 12 tracks per album. We also subtracted a 10% manager's fee for each revenue category.
An artist's take of revenue from on-demand streams was calculated based on the average wholesale rate paid to labels. Revenue from noninteractive streams was based on SoundExchange's rate settlement with webcasters. An artist's share of revenue from tethered downloads was calculated on the number of plays. If the artist is also a songwriter, Billboard estimated the share of songs written by that artist. But digital revenue accounted for only a fraction of the overall hauls by most artists. In 2011, there was no contest: Touring was by far the largest income generator for most every superstar artist-and it will remain so into the foreseeable future.
#20 Michael Bublé $9,027,177
It was a very merry holiday season for Michael Bublé, whose Christmas album quickly became the No. 2 best-selling album of 2011, moving 2.4 million copies in its first five weeks. That hot streak, coupled with continued strong action with his catalog (particularly 2009's Crazy Love), helped him sell nearly 3 million albums total and an additional 1.3 million tracks during the entire year. A June swing through North America made up the bulk of his 2011 touring, with grosses of $11.1 million, of which Bublé netted $3.7 million. Endorsement deals with Beringer Vineyards and Target, a prime-time NBC Christmas special and high-profile appearances on "Saturday Night Live," "Today" and "60 Minutes" all helped further promote the Canadian artist.
#19 Tim McGraw $9,335,258
It's highly unlikely Tim McGraw will release new music through longtime label home Curb Music, since he recently won a court decision that effectively closed any obligations to the label. But he sure moved a lot of music on his way out the door. The delayed release of Emotional Traffic, out in January, was offset by a wealth of compilations in the marketplace, and McGraw sold more than 770,000 albums (mostly physical units) in 2011. His touring clout has also been trending upward, which helps direct interest to his catalog of hits, the result being 2.5 million digital track downloads last year. These days, McGraw is a branding/merchandising powerhouse and, lest we forget, a multifaceted artist who also has a healthy film career.
#18 Rascal Flatts $9,639,270
Rascal Flatts switched labels and management companies but continued to post stellar numbers in 2011. Nothing Like This, the band's first album for Big Machine Records after a decade with now-defunct Lyric Street Records, was released Nov. 16, 2010, and sold 499,000 units and 1.8 million tracks in the following year. The album's second single, "I Won't Let Go," spent 22 weeks on Billboard's Hot Country Songs chart and peaked at No. 2. "Easy," featuring Natasha Bedingfield, peaked at No. 3 on Hot Country Songs after a 25-week stay. The Nothing Like This tour continued into 2011 and was followed in the summer by the Flatts Fest trek, with the back-to-back outings helping Rascal Flatts gross $21.8 million in ticket sales.
#17 Bob Seger & The Silver Bullet Band $10,017,031
Recent Songwriters Hall of Fame inductee Bob Seger earned the majority of his revenue in 2011 on the road, but the legendary artist made a significant leap into the digital music space by allowing some of the band's live and greatest-hits albums to be sold on iTunes. The September announcement of Bob Seger & the Silver Bullet Band's iTunes debut coincided with the group announcing dates for the second leg of its 2011 tour, which no doubt helped raise awareness of the trek. Grossing $25.4 million from 32 U.S. arena concerts and attracting more than 354,000 fans, Seger sold 70,000 albums digitally and 630,000 overall in 2011. His Ultimate Hits: Rock and Roll Never Forgets, released last November, sold 185,000 copies, but his biggest seller last year was a 1994 greatest-hits album (191,000). The latter is one of the top-selling hits sets of the Nielsen SoundScan era.
#16 Britney Spears $10,090,973
While Britney Spears' seventh album, the chart-topping Femme Fatale, was released in March 2011, she spent the latter half of the year earning most of her millions. The Live Nation-sponsored Femme Fatale tour, her first concert endeavor in nearly two years, kicked off stateside in June, with Nicki Minaj in tow for North American dates. The elaborately staged trek wrapped six months later, after visiting four continents for nearly 80 shows and culminating with revenue of $21.7 million. While Spears earned $7.3 million for her half-year on the road, her 2011 album sales of 883,000 were fueled by three Femme Fatale singles, including the No. 1 "Hold It Against Me."
#15 Toby Keith $10,413,127
Country music mega-star Toby Keith secured a spot on the Money Makers list with his Locked & Loaded tour that grossed more than $24 million. Sponsored by Ford, it included dates in 40-plus U.S. cities and a European leg that wrapped in Berlin last November. During a year that saw the singer lauded as both artist of the decade by the American Country Music Awards and the highest-paid country star by Forbes, Keith released Clancy's Tavern, which topped Billboard's country albums chart. Tavern has sold more than 336,000 copies, with the album's singles including country chart-topper "Made in America" and "Red Solo Cup," the latter crossing over and reaching No. 17 on the pop chart-Keith's biggest hit to date on the Billboard Hot 100.
#14 Katy Perry $11,969,426
In 2011, Katy Perry tied Michael Jackson's record by scoring five No. 1 singles from one album, 2010's Teenage Dream, with such songs as "E.T." and "Firework." Not surprisingly, the radio ruler's digital track sales soared above her fellow pop phenoms: With 15.2 million units moved, Perry bested Lady Gaga, Taylor Swift and Rihanna in the category. Meanwhile, the singer's California Dreams world tour kept Perry on the road for most of 2011, grossing $19.5 million domestically and netting her $6.6 million. Perry also raised her visibility at the multiplex (with a voice spot in "The Smurfs"), on the small screen (with appearances on "How I Met Your Mother" and "American Idol") and at awards ceremonies (with a performance at the 2011 Grammy Awards and a video of the year win at MTV's Video Music Awards). Perry has already started off strong in 2012: "Part of Me," the lead single to her Teenage Dream reissue (due March 27), became the 20th song to debut atop the Hot 100 in the chart's history.
#13 Elton John $11,973,990
Elton John returned to Las Vegas in 2011 and performed 16 of his "Million Dollar Piano" shows before heading to Russia and Australia. His Colosseum at Caesars Palace residency accounted for a third of his concert grosses, which hit $32.5 million and a personal take of $11 million. A summer tour of Europe, scattered U.S. dates and the soundtrack to his animated "Gnomeo & Juliet" dominated John's activity prior to setting up shop in Vegas, while "The Union," Cameron Crowe's documentary about John's collaboration with Leon Russell, debuted in April at the Tribeca Film Festival. Concert income was significant for John in 2011 as sales of his recordings dipped: Physical album sales were 254,000 units, while digital album and single track sales were 148,000 each. John also contributed music to "Billy Elliot: The Musical," and though the Broadway stand ended in January 2012, road versions continued in other territories around the world.
#12 Journey $12,313,822
Through the revival of 1981 anthem "Don't Stop Believin'" on "Glee" and "Big Brother," combined with the arrival of vocalist Arnel Pineda, 2011 proved another stellar year as Journey toured Latin and South America and played 50 shows in the United States. The latter concerts represented a step up in venue size to include arenas and the Hollywood Bowl along with the traditional amphitheaters, fairgrounds and casinos. Touring in support of Eclipse, the band netted $9.9 million from domestic dates while continuing to be a significant player at retail with sales of 703,000 physical albums. Recognizing the group's longevity on the concert stage, band founder Neal Schon and longtime members Jonathan Cain, Ross Valory and Deen Castronovo were honored with the Legend of Live Award at the Billboard Touring Awards in November.
#11 "Glee" Cast $12,587,771
The cast of Fox's "Glee" won't tour this year, but the TV musical troupe made a splash in 2011, grossing nearly $22 million from 23 U.S. arena concerts that attracted nearly 266,000 fans. That number helped the Glee Live! In Concert! outing rank 16th on Billboard's top 25 highest-grossing tours of 2011. The "Glee" cast also scored at retail, selling 2.1 million albums during the year. The cast released six albums in 2011; the biggest of them all (Glee: The Music, Volume 5) sold 318,000 copies. In February 2011, the show's cast reached another milestone by beating the record set by Elvis Presley for the most singles simultaneously appearing on the Billboard Hot 100. Online, the "Glee" cast sold 13.6 million downloads in 2011.
#10 Adele $13,081,909
Even an extreme medical emergency couldn't interfere with Adele's success in 2011. From the moment sophomore album 21 stormed in atop the Billboard 200 in March 2011, the singer/songwriter has been setting-and demolishing-a seemingly endless array of retail and radio feats. Before her latest achievement-spending 23 weeks atop the chart to notch the longest-running No. 1 album in Nielsen SoundScan's history-Adele racked up numerous other milestones. Her single "Rolling in the Deep" became the most widely crossed-over song of the past 25 years, topping rock, pop, AC, R&B/hip-hop, dance and Latin charts. In addition, she became one of only four female artists to spend at least 13 weeks at the peak of the Billboard 200, joining Judy Garland, Carole King and Whitney Houston. Adele then capped the year by winning six Grammy Awards, including album of the year. Although throat surgery sidelined her touring schedule last October, her album sales continued to soar to the tune of 6.7 million in 2011.
#9 Jason Aldean $13,409,011
Contrary to the third-time-lucky rule, it was Jason Aldean's fourth album for Broken Bow Records, My Kinda Party, that turned him into a legitimate country superstar. Released in November 2010, Party sold 1.6 million units and 5 million tracks last year, moving 2.4 million albums and 6.6 million tracks through mid-February of this year. "Don't You Wanna Stay," a duet with Kelly Clarkson, peaked atop Billboard's Hot Country Songs chart in March 2011 and sold 1.5 million tracks last year. "Stay" was quickly followed by the country-rap hybrid "Dirt Road Anthem," which reached No. 1 in July. Aldean also matured into one of country's most successful live acts. The My Kinda Party tour sold out arenas and amphitheaters across the country, grossed $27 million in 2011 and netted Aldean an estimated $9.1 million. His rapid ascent to the concert industry's upper echelon helped him win the Breakthrough honor at the 2011 Billboard Touring Awards.
#8 Celine Dion $14,261,515
Celine Dion sure knows how to make a comeback. After her historic five-year residency at Las Vegas' Colosseum at Caesars Palace ended in late 2007, the Canadian singer took a well-deserved break, then returned to the 4,000-seat venue in March 2011 for yet another stand. She grossed $40.1 million from 57 performances last year that drew nearly a quarter-million fans and booked additional Vegas dates through this August. Though Dion's last studio album was 2007's Taking Chances, she sold 331,000 albums in 2011, the biggest catalog item being 1997's Let's Talk About Love (75,000 copies). The singer also sold 956,000 digital tracks last year, with the top seller still being "My Heart Will Go On," from 1997's blockbuster film "Titanic" (167,000 downloads).
#7 Bon Jovi $19,813,232
Guided by the business acumen and savvy musical instincts of charismatic frontman Jon Bon Jovi, the New Jersey rock phenom has been a brand and a band on fire for much of the past decade. The Circle tour, marking the most ambitious trek in the band's 30-year history, wrapped last summer with a final tally of $265 million, the sixth-largest-grossing tour of all time. Aside from its prized catalog of hits, the band releases chart-topping new material as well: During the most recent round of live gigs, Bon Jovi put out its first greatest-hits package and new studio album The Circle, each cross-marketed on the AEG Live-produced tour directed by BJM's Paul Korzilius. Bon Jovi moved more than 320,000 physical CDs last year, 1.6 million digital tracks and two new DVD titles in addition to tons of branded merch, maximizing its highly familiar image and sound decades after its humble beginnings.
#6 Sade $16,382,809
Just as fans clamored for a return to the recording studio in 2010-causing her Soldier of Love to debut at No. 1 on the Billboard 200 with 502,000 units sold-followers of the sultry singer and her smooth jazz band also lined up last year for Sade's first North American tour since 2001. The 59-date, Live Nation-produced arena trek claimed 10th place on Billboard's Top 25 Tours listing. With John Legend opening all U.S. dates, the tour ultimately posted $45.7 million in revenue that resulted in a cool $15.4 million take for the group. Longtime collaborator Sophie Muller served as creative director and Baz Halpin (Pink!, Tina Turner) handled production and lighting design for the critically acclaimed live shows, which featured a massive LED screen showing videos and dazzling images behind the band. While an official release date hasn't yet been announced, Muller stayed busy last year editing a film version of the tour that may appear on cable and DVD soon.
#5 Lil Wayne $23,178,722
Lil Wayne's first full year back in the market after serving eight months for attempted gun possession in New York proved a lucrative stretch. For the week ending Sept. 6, ninth studio set Tha Carter IV debuted atop the Billboard 200, racking up the year's second-biggest sales week with 964,000 units sold. The tally also gave Wayne the best sales week by a male artist since his own Carter III topped the charts with 1 million units in June 2008 and accounted for nearly a third of his total 2.7 million sales for that year. (Only Lady Gaga's Born This Way, offered at a special 99 cent price for two days at AmazonMP3 during its first week, had a better debut than IV in 2011.) Wayne also moved 12.3 million digital tracks, driven by Hot 100 top 10s like "6 Foot, 7 Foot" and "She Will," and continued to prove himself on the road. His I Am Still Music tour grossed $44.7 million from 67 shows and 695,291 tickets sold. Then there's the fortune he earned as founder of Young Money Entertainment, label home of Nicki Minaj, Drake, Tyga and others, but that's a different list.
#4 Lady Gaga $25,353,039
Topping the Money Makers list in 2011, the theatrical chanteuse enjoyed a near-repeat of her previous stellar year. Defined by the May launch of yet another full-length opus, Born This Way, the album sold 1.1 million units during its first week, marking the biggest single sales frame for an album release in 2011. Combined with her previous sets The Fame and The Fame Monster, Gaga moved 2.8 million albums last year. Meanwhile, Born This Way spawned four singles that all reached the top 10 of the Billboard Hot 100 and helped the singer move 12.7 million digital tracks. Despite holding off on another traditional tour when her 19-month Monster Ball trek wrapped last May, Gaga's Boxscore revenue equaled $51.4 million in 2011, after reaping $70.4 million the year before. Expect Born This Way to keep delivering in 2012, with the Born This Way Ball ready to roll overseas in April.
#3 Kenny Chesney $29,837,103
Kenny Chesney rejuvenated himself by taking time off from touring in 2010, and fans responded by turning out in record numbers to see him last year. Promoted nationally by TMG/AEG Live, Chesney captured his sixth top package honor at the 2011 Billboard Touring Awards for his Goin' Coastal concert swing, his eighth consecutive tour to sell more than 1 million tickets. As with most leading country live acts, Chesney also sells a healthy amount of recordings while touring: more than 650,000 physical album units (buoyed by hit-laden 2010 album Hemingway's Whiskey) and 4.3 million-plus digital tracks. Chesney's fans worship his romantic, hard-drinking lifestyle, so he derives additional revenue streams from various merchandise, a laid-back clothing line, ringtones, DVDs and even a sponsorship deal with the beverage firm that makes Corona. (No surprise, given that Chesney wrote the No. 1 country hit "Beer in Mexico.")
#2 U2 $32,116,315
U2's monumental 360° tour finally wrapped in 2011 with a $91.5 million Boxscore for the year, including a return trek through North America originally scheduled for 2010 but postponed due to Bono's back surgery. Fewer than 10% of the tickets had to be refunded, and those returns were quickly scooped up. The total Boxscore tally of $736 million stands as an amazing record, and the attendance of 7.3 million concert-goers (another record) led to merchandise sales approaching $50 million, according to Billboard estimates (but not included in calculating the Money Makers tally). Merch sales and fan club revenue were maximized under synergies created through the band's long-term, multirights deal with Live Nation, and the 360° tour marked an impressive testament to the ability of both sides to deliver. U2 also sold a significant amount of recorded content, including 1.4 million digital tracks, since the tour drew fans' attention to catalog favorites. Combining digital and physical units, however, U2 moved the least number of albums among the top 10 Money Makers. Today's music business is all about the live thing, and U2 stands high on the mountaintop in that regard.
#1 Taylor Swift $35,719,902
After wrapping the final leg of her Fearless tour, Taylor Swift's blockbuster success two years ago left music industry observers wondering what she could possibly do for an encore. The pop-country superstar answered them with her smash Speak Now album and accompanying tour, which jetted through Asia and Europe in addition to making its way across North America. Grossing $88.5 million in the U.S. alone, the tour netted Swift a remarkable $29.8 million. Honored as Billboard's Woman of the Year in December, she racked up U.S. album sales of 1.8 million units last year-led by booming business for late 2010's Speak Now, which sold 967,000 units and digital single track sales of 7.8 million. Songwriting royalties were another highly beneficial source of income, given that Swift wrote all 14 Speak Now tunes herself.
See the full TOP 40 list at the source!